KEY   MEXICO: ENPIRE, INDEPENDENCE and NATION BUILDING 

                                        WHATWHOAM I?

ANSWER BANK: Aztecs – Cortez – Peninsulares – Criollos –  Mestizos – Peons

smallpox – encomienda – Napoleon –  Father Hidalgo – Father Morelos – Iturbide – 

Santa Ana – conservatives – liberals – Constitution of 1857 – Maximillian  – Juarez – Porfirio Diaz  –  “cientificos”

                                          ANSWER KEY

1)Threatened with arrest from the “tyrannical” Spanish, my “Cry of Dolores” set off a revolt on September 16, 1810 by the Mexican “masses” against Spanish rule. 

      I am called the ”Father” of Mexican independence, even though I regretted the violent “bloodbath” that ensued. I was executed by the Spaniards.

    WHAT-WHO AM I ?        FATHER HIDALGO

2)We migrated from the north onto an island in Lake Texcoco, hated and humiliated by the natives.  We built Tenochtitlan, conquering our native rivals and creating an empire.

   WHAT-WHO AM I ?      AZTECS

3)I was a “liberal” general who established political stability after 50 years of conflict and chaos.  

I brought economic development and modernization.  I was overthrown as a “dictator” in The Revolution of 1910.

WHAT-WHO AM I ?     PORFIRIO DIAZ

4)I was the forced labor system established by the Spaniards, forcing many to live an almost slave-like existence.

WHAT-WHO AM I ?    ENCOMIENDA__

5)I was the first “Emperor” of Mexico.  A poor leader, I was later executed by fellowMexican generals.

WHAT-WHO AM I ?    ITURBIDE

6)President of Mexico 11 different times, I am called by some the “Napoleon” of Mexican history, considered both a “hero” and a power-driven, selfish “hypocrite”.      

      I symbolized the political instability of the liberal vs. conservative divide.

    WHAT-WHO AM I ?    SANTA ANA

7)We were the class of Mexican-born Spaniards who resented “Peninsular” rule.  

We were the class whose support eventually led independence from Spain in 1821.

     WHAT-WHO AM I ?     CRIOLLOS

8)I was the liberal President of Mexico that defeated Emperor Maximillian and 

      French Intervention.  My presidency was often “chaotic”, I died in 1872.

     WHAT-WHO AM I ?     BENITO JUAREZ

9)I am the racially “mixed” class of native and Europeans that makes up the great 

      majority of “Mexicans”.

WHAT-WHO AM I ?   MESTIZOS

10)I killed the great majority of Native (indigenous) population that inhabited Mexico when the Spanish took control.

WHAT-WHO AM I ?   SMALLPOX

11)We are the class of Spanish-born who dominated “New Spain”.  We were resented by the Mexican-born Criollo class.

WHAT-WHO AM I ?  PENINSULARES

12)We were the government advisors to Porfirio Diaz, guiding the development and modernization of Mexico.

WHAT-WHO AM I ?   “CIENTIFICOS

13)I was a “liberal” document that helped lead to the “War of the Reform”, a bloody civil war between Mexico’s “liberals” and “conservatives”.

     WHAT-WHO AM I ?   CONSTITUTION of 1857

14)We sought a Mexico modeled after the United States – a “modern”, egalitarian republic that rejected our feudal, Spanish past.

   WHAT-WHO AM I ?   LIBERALS

15)We sought a Mexico modeled after Spain, a “traditional”, feudal society of social hierarchy (king, noble elites) and “stability”.

     WHAT-WHO AM I ?    CONSERVATIVES

16)We are the “peasant” class of Mexico, living a life of “subsistent” survival.

    WHAT-WHO AM I ?      PEONS

17)I followed Father Hidalgo, seeking Mexican independence.  Holding a “congress” that sought Criollo support, I was later executed.

    WHAT-WHO AM I ?    FATHER MORELOS

18)An Austrian Hapsburg, I was crowned Emperor of Mexico.  Supported by Mexican conservatives and French troops, I was later executed for the Mexican “liberal” cause.

    WHAT-WHO AM I ?     MAXIMILLIAN

19)I was a “conquistador” who, with help from native “Mexican” allies, defeated the Aztecs in 1521. WHAT-WHO AM I ?    CORTEZ

20)I conquered Spain, setting up my brother Joseph as the Spanish king.  I played an indirect part in influencing Mexican history. 

    WHAT-WHO AM I ?       NAPOLEON